Eat Haskell String Types for Breakfast

This blog post summarizes, with bite-size bullet points, some knowledge on Haskell string types that I think is important to recognize when writing Haskell. The intended audience include inexperienced Haskell programmers, and experienced Haskell programmers who feel like refreshing their memory. The bullet list hopefully makes things reasonably easy to digest, and helps you eat Haskell string types for breakfast.

Haskell has five commonly used string types: String, strict and lazy Text, and strict and lazy ByteString1. Some recommand against calling ByteString a string type, The following is roughly in the order of String, Text, ByteString.

  • String is, in some sense, the “official” string type, since it is the only string type in base (and of course, the only one in Prelude).

  • String is unfortunately highly inefficient, because it is quite simply a linked list (specifically, a cons-list) of (boxed) Chars, each of which represents a unicode code point. This means each Char in a String is in a cons-cell with a (:) tag, a pointer to the Char on the heap, and a pointer to the next cons-cell.

    How many bytes a String uses per character on a 64-bit machine is left as an exercise, but it is certainly a lot more than what is theoretically required to encode a unicode code point: between 1 and 4 bytes. It also suffers from poor locality for obvious reasons.

  • String is convenient when dealing with certain parts of base, for instance show and displayException, as well as the filepath and directory libraries, but there are few other legitimate use cases of String. For many base functions that work on Strings, such as reverse, takeWhile and isInfixOf, there are corresponding versions in Data.Text.

  • Text, like String, also represents a sequence of unicode characters, but is much more tightly packed. Thus it can often be a drop-in replacement for String.

  • Strict Text is a (strict) array of bytes. Lazy Text is a (lazy) cons-list of strict Texts, where each strict Text is called a chunk, and the lazy cons-list is also known as the spine. Internally, strict Text is UTF-16 encoded, so each character occupies either 2 or 4 bytes (plus some constant overhead for each Text).
    • Text uses UTF-16 rather than the more popular UTF-8, because although UTF-8 is more space-efficient for ASCII characters, its arithmetic is relatively more complex, and converting bytes to/from Chars is more expensive. Furthermore, the space saving of UTF-8 is insignificant for small Text values. See Text/UTF-8: Aftermath for more details.
    • The specific encoding Text uses internally, whether UTF-8 or UTF-16, does not usually affect the way most users use the library. Unless you are using stuff in the Internal modules, the unit you deal with is Char.
    • If you prefer a Text type that internally uses UTF-8 (for example, if you have a lot of interaction with UTF-8 encoded data), consider text-short or core-text.
  • If you are familiar with Java, it might be helpful to think of lazy Text as LinkedList<ArrayList<Byte>> (except that the LinkedList is a lazy cons-list), where each ArrayList<Byte> is a chunk, and the LinkedList is the spine. This gets the benefits of both LinkedList and ArrayList: it supports efficient O(1) concatenation2 because LinkedList concatenation is O(1); it also is more space efficient and has better locality than a flat LinkedList<Byte>, because ArrayList is stored contiguously in memory and there’s no pointer from a node to the next.

    • Some have argued that it is better to use a strict list/rope of chunks for lazy Text, which would be more comparable to Java’s LinkedList<ArrayList<Byte>>. The advantage is that this can potentially unify strict and lazy Text into a single type, because it is both strict, and efficient in concatenation (and similar operations) like lazy Text is. The disadvantage, however, is that there doesn’t exist (at least not yet, as far as I know) an efficient implementation of LinkedList (or any data structure) in Haskell whose performance is competitive in terms of constant factors to raw byte arrays (which is what backs strict Text), and it may well be impossible.

      Besides, there are legitimate use cases, though perhaps rare, that require the Text to be lazy, for instance when you want to perform lazy IO without bothering to use conduit or pipes (you most likely should, though).

  • Many operations on Text are subject to fusion. The goal of fusion is to avoid materializing intermediate results when performing a chain of operations. The core idea of fusion is similar to improving list concatenation using difference lists, and improving a chain of fmap using Coyoneda, and can be summarized as: delay, delay, delay. Delaying the construction of a data structure is key for avoiding materializing the intermediate results. One way to delay an operation on a data structure is to turn the data structure into an arrow (e.g., function or Kleisli arrow), turn the operation into composition (e.g., function composition or Kleisli composition), and finally, apply the arrow to some argument to get the result only when needed.

    As an example, there are at least two ways to turn a Haskell list into functions, and they are related in an interesting way:

    1. Representing the list inductively (a.k.a. build/foldr fusion system):
      newtype List a = List { build :: forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b }

      This represents a list in terms of fold. It is equivalent to Mu (ListF a) where Mu f is the least fixed point of f, and ListF a is the base functor of [a], i.e.,

      data ListF a b = Cons a b | Nil
    2. Representing the list coinductively (a.k.a. stream fusion):
      data List a = forall s. List (s -> Step a s) s
      data Step a s = Yield a s | Done

      This represents a list in terms of unfold. It is equivalent to Nu (ListF a) where Nu f is the greatest fixed point of f.

    So these two approaches are dual of each other. In both cases, a list is represented in a “delayed” form, and operations such as map simply “remembers” the function to be mapped, rather than actually performing the mapping and generating a new list. The pros and cons of the two approaches is out of the scope of this blog post, but this paper has more details if you are interested.

    In the case of Text, it employs stream fusion. Each eligible operation op is turned into fromStream . opOnStream . toStream, where opOnStream is the streaming version of op, and a rewrite rule is used to cancel toStream . fromStream into the identity function.

  • ByteString, unlike String and Text, has little to do with Char or unicode. It is just a sequence of bytes. To convert a ByteString to/from Text, you need to specify which encoding you intend to use, and then use the conversion functions in Data.Text.Encoding.

  • Like Text, strict ByteString is backed by a byte array, and lazy ByteString is backed by a cons-list of chunks, each of which is a strict ByteString. One difference is that strict ByteString uses a ForeignPtr Word8 as the underlying data structure. This makes it directly usable in FFI because it has the same memory layout as an unsigned char * in C (note that a char in C is a byte, not a unicode code point).
    • To pass a ByteString to a C function, you just need to do two things: (1) make a copy of it (because otherwise the C function may mutate it), and (2) append a null (0x00) byte, since C strings are null-terminated. This is exactly what Data.ByteString.useAsCString does.
  • Functions in Data.ByteString.Char8 behave as if each byte is a Char, and that’s why you don’t need to (and don’t get to) specify an encoding to use any function in this module. It works well if your ByteString contains ASCII characters only, but probably not otherwise; for example, Char8.unpack (Char8.pack "😈😈😈") /= "😈😈😈". Use the Char8 module if you are certain that you are dealing with ASCII characters, or if otherwise you know what you are doing.

  • When using Data.Text.IO.hGetLine and Data.Text.IO.hGetContents, make sure the Handle has the correct encoding. You’d otherwise get an “invalid argument (invalid byte sequence)” error. Since these methods rely on using the correct encoding, it is often wise to use their counterparts in Data.ByteString. ByteString, having no assumption on the encoding, is more suitable for exchanging information across machines. After reading the ByteStrings in, you can then decode them using the appropriate decoders and handle errors properly.
    • This is probably why Aeson’s encode and decode functions work with ByteString rather than Text, even though JSON is supposed to be textual and human readable. JSON is often exchanged over the network, and since data are sent or received over the network as sequences of bytes, you’d need ByteString. Furthermore, although the overwhelming majority of JSON texts are UTF-8 encoded, this is not a guarantee, so using Text prematurely can be risky.
    • That being said, the Aeson library does provide Text-based encoder and decoder in the Data.Aeson.Text module.
    • On a side node, Aeson’s encode function returns a lazy ByteString, because the result is assembled piece by piece, and lazy ByteString, like lazy Text, has better asymptotics for operations like concatenation.
  • Data.ByteString.getLine and Data.ByteString.hGetLine both read until EOF or a newline byte, i.e., 0x0A. Beware if your data is not UTF-8 encoded. For example, in UTF-16BE and UTF-16LE, the newline character has two bytes, and is encoded as 0x00 0x0A and 0x0A 0x00, respectively. Arguably, these two functions should only be exposed from the Char8 module, because a newline is a character.

  • If you have a function that takes a lazy Text as input, consider taking instead a stream that produces Text (e.g., ConduitT i Text m () in conduit, or Producer' Text m () in pipes). Because you can easily convert a lazy Text into a stream, but the converse is not true because the stream may be effectful. The same goes for ByteString.

  • ByteString used to employ stream fusion like Text does, but currently fusion is not used in ByteString, whether strict or lazy. Here’s the author’s explanation of why fusion is no longer used.

  • The bytestring package also has a ShortByteString type. It can be a good option if you need to keep a large number of small ByteStrings around.

Further Reading

  1. I should remark that ByteString is technically not a string type, because a string is a sequence of characters, and ByteString is a sequence of bytes - it has no notion of characters. So “ByteString” is perhaps not the most fitting name. It is, however, appropriate to discuss ByteString together with String and Text, since the correct choice among these types is often a point of confusion. 

  2. Concatenation of two lazy Texts is not actually O(1) because Haskell’s cons-list doesn’t support O(1) concatenation.It is O(c1) where c1 is the number of chunks in the first Text. It is still a much better asymptotic than concatenating two strict Texts, which is O(n1 + n2) where n1 and n2 are the lengths of the two Texts.